Tag: round

Left to right: .280/30 British, 7.62x39mm M67, 5.56x45m M855, 6.8x43mm SPC XM68GD, 6.5x38mm Grendel 123gr Lapua Scenar, 7.92x33mm Kz.Ptr.43 sME. All of these rounds have different characteristics that affect their ballistic performance and their reliability in automatic firearms. We'll be taking a closer look at these characteristics to better understand the trade-offs in small arms ammunition design. 7.65x35mmMAS Four PDW calibers: .22 WMR (Kel-Tec CMR-30 and PMR-30 SMG), .22 SCAMP (Colt SCAMP), 5.7x28mm FN (FN P90), and 4.6x30mm HK (HK MP7).

Modern Personal Defense Weapon Calibers 002: The 4.6x30mm HK

If the 5.7x28mm FN is the first successful modern PDW round, then the 4.6x30mm HK is the second, and its biggest rival. German firm Heckler and developed the microcaliber 4.6mm in the 1990s as a response to a NATO solicitation for a Personal Defense Weapon, to which [Read More…]

Four PDW calibers: .22 WMR (Kel-Tec CMR-30 and PMR-30 SMG), .22 SCAMP (Colt SCAMP), 5.7x28mm FN (FN P90), and 4.6x30mm HK (HK MP7).

Modern Personal Defense Weapon Calibers 001: Introduction, and the 5.7x28mm FN

At this point, we’ve talked about 25 different intermediate and full power calibers as part of a series comparing different types of modern small arms ammunition. However, one subject not yet thoroughly covered is rounds for personal defense weapons (PDWs). These [Read More…]

Left to right: 4.9x45mm DAG, 4.3x45mm DAG, 4.6x36mm HK/CETME, 4.7x21mm HK early G11, 4.7x33 HK late G11, 4.6x30 HK MP7 Left to right: 7.65x38mm Swiss, 7.5x55 GP.11, 6.45x48mm GP.80, 5.56x45mm SS109 gerrperrscherr

Where to Draw the Line? Managing the Weight of Next Generation Universal Calibers Using a Weight Calculator

How can one balance the trade-offs inherent in ammunition design to create a true one-caliber infantry weapon system that is both effective and lightweight? This is a question I’ve been exploring for close to a decade, and writing about for over four years. The [Read More…]

.264 USA The long-necked Colt 7.62mm round on the left combines the principles of triplex and squeezebore rounds (together called "salvo-squeezebore"). When fired from a modified M60 with a tapered muzzle, it would spit out three 55gr .224" caliber projectiles per shot. In the center is the duplex (not squeezebore) M198 7.62mm round, and on the right is the M80A1 EPR round, for comparison.

Future Firearms Ammunition Technology 007: Squeezebore Ammunition – Celeritas Et Accuratio

Previously, we discussed the benefits of and challenges facing saboted projectile ammunition, including the advantages of decoupling the diameters of the bore and the projectile, and the problems of accuracy during sabot discarding. One concept that could possibly [Read More…]

Caseless rounds, left to right: 7.62x34mm Frankford Arsenal caseless, 5.56x24mm FA caseless, 5.56x25mm Hercules caseless, 4.7x21mm H&K/DAG early caseless, 4.7x33mm HK/DAG G11 caseless.

Future Firearms Ammunition Technology 005: Caseless Ammunition – Lightening the Load, Pt. 3

Previously, we discussed trying to lighten the soldier’s load by making the cartridge case out of different materials, including aluminum and compositing the case out of polymer and metal. Yet, wouldn’t the lightest possible case configuration be… [Read More…]

So far, the polymer composite case has only found purchase with low-power specialty ammunition, such as the plastic blank and fired 7.62mm UTM marking round, both on the right. Several commercial composite cased rounds have been tried, including the grey .223 Remington PCA ammunition. In the 1970s, Frankford Arsenal and AAI experimented with composite cased ammunition, represented by the white cased round in the middle. On the left is a standard Korean-made M855 round.

Future Firearms Ammunition Technology 002: Polymer-Cased Composite Ammunition – Lightening the Load, Pt. 2

In the last installment, we talked about the growing need throughout the 20th Century to reduce the weight of the cartridge case, to lighten the burden of the soldier. Experiments in aluminum have thus far proven unsuccessful, but another material is even more [Read More…]

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Modern Historical Intermediate Calibers 020: The 7.62x45mm Czech

After World War II, the nations of the world retired to lick their wounds and rebuild, but their arms engineers also began thinking about the next war. The war have brought forth a storm of new technologies and inventions, and one of the most significant in the field of [Read More…]


Modern Intermediate Full Power Calibers 019: The Russian 6x49mm Unified

What happens when you take the two concepts of a traditional, full-power rifle and machine gun round, and a small-caliber, high-velocity round, and smash them together? You get one of the most extreme military small arms calibers ever developed, and one of the last [Read More…]

.30 caliber rounds: .30-06 M2 AP, .303 Mk. VII, 7.5x54 Balle C, 7.9x57 sS Patrone, 7.62x54R LPS Ball, 7.62x51 NATO S Patrone (Austria). The 7.92mm Kurzpatrone 43 (middle right) was developed from the larger 7.92mm German infantry cartridge, represented by the 154gr S Patrone (left) and 198gr sS Patrone (middle left). The 7.92x33 Kurz, as it's more commonly called today, is still used by some forces that retain the WWII-era Sturmgewehrs that fire it. The primary producer of ammunition for these weapons today is Prvi Partizan, which made the cartridge on the far right. 5.8x42DBP-10 On the right are two types of 7.62 NATO round, the M80 and M80A1, alongside two of its predecessors. Center left is the .30 T104 ball cartridge using the 1948 T1E1 case. Left is the .300 Savage, which was the starting point for what became the 7.62 NATO. The 4.85 British (center) was developed in the UK and competed in the NATO trials that eventually standardized on the Belgian 5.56mm SS109 load (left). Like the similar German 4.9x45mm DAG (right), it is based on the 5.56mm case. The 5.56mm alongside two of its .17 caliber variants. Center, the 4.32x45mm Frankford Arsenal, Right, the German 4.3x45mm DAG. Two .280/30 cartridges, and their immediate ancestors. The .280 concept was inspired by the German 7.92x33 Kurz caliber on the far left, but demands for standardization in testing with the US-developed .30 T65 cartridge (center left) resulted in rounds after 1949 using the same case head as that round. 0810162235bn A 5.45x39mm 7N6 cartridge, flanked by two of its predecessors. The 5.6x39mm (left) was developed from an early Soviet ballistic test round using the 7.62x39mm case head, which was designed to duplicate the performance of the early .222 Remington Special (right), later renamed the .223 Remington. The .25-45 Sharps flanked by the 5.56mm M855 and Mk. 262 rounds. 7.62x40 WT next to its parent, the 5.56mm. Two 6.5 Grendel rounds and related cartridges. Left to right: 7.62x39mm, .220 Russian, 6.5 Grendel 123gr SMK, Wolf 100gr FMJ. That is what happens when a wound channel collapses on itself so quickly that it sets the air on fire. .30 caliber rounds: .30-06 M2 AP, .303 Mk. VII, 7.5x54 Balle C, 7.9x57 sS Patrone, 7.62x54R LPS Ball, 7.62x51 NATO S Patrone (Austria). IMG_2233 m203-Firing cutaways5070