Tag: Education

Left to right: 7.65x38mm Swiss, 7.5x55 GP.11, 6.45x48mm GP.80, 5.56x45mm SS109 0919161710cmod2 Polymer-cased telescoped ammunition, left to right: .38 cal. Dardick Tround, 5.56x30 Hughes Lockless, 5.56x45 Steyr ACR flechette.

Future Firearms Ammunition Technology 008: Plastic-Cased, Telescoped Ammunition – Lightening the Load, Pt. 4

Previously, we discussed different concepts for lightening the soldier’s load, including aluminum-, composite-cased and caseless ammunition. Today we’re going to look at the weight-reducing concept that many believe is the horse to bet on when it comes to [Read More…]

The long-necked Colt 7.62mm round on the left combines the principles of triplex and squeezebore rounds (together called "salvo-squeezebore"). When fired from a modified M60 with a tapered muzzle, it would spit out three 55gr .224" caliber projectiles per shot. In the center is the duplex (not squeezebore) M198 7.62mm round, and on the right is the M80A1 EPR round, for comparison.

Future Firearms Ammunition Technology 007: Squeezebore Ammunition – Celeritas Et Accuratio

Previously, we discussed the benefits of and challenges facing saboted projectile ammunition, including the advantages of decoupling the diameters of the bore and the projectile, and the problems of accuracy during sabot discarding. One concept that could possibly [Read More…]

Multiplex rounds, left to right: .30-06 long neck duplex, .22-06 long neck duplex, .25 Winchester FA T115 short neck duplex, .25 Winchester FA T127 long neck duplex, Colt 7.62 salvo squeezebore triplex, 7.62mm M198 duplex ball, 9.53x76mm Winchester quadruple flechette, .330 Amron Aerojet triple flechette.

Future Firearms Ammunition Technology 006: Multiplex Projectile Ammunition – Two, Three, Four for the Price of One?

After World War II, US Army analysts determined that the effectiveness of the infantryman was not as closely related to their marksmanship discipline as had been previously thought. It seemed that instead, the random environmental circumstances and effects, plus the [Read More…]

Caseless rounds, left to right: 7.62x34mm Frankford Arsenal caseless, 5.56x24mm FA caseless, 5.56x25mm Hercules caseless, 4.7x21mm H&K/DAG early caseless, 4.7x33mm HK/DAG G11 caseless.

Future Firearms Ammunition Technology 005: Caseless Ammunition – Lightening the Load, Pt. 3

Previously, we discussed trying to lighten the soldier’s load by making the cartridge case out of different materials, including aluminum and compositing the case out of polymer and metal. Yet, wouldn’t the lightest possible case configuration be… [Read More…]

Flechette rounds, left to right: XM645 with glass polyester sabot, XM645 with compressed sabot, XM110 with GP sabot, 10gr SPIW flechette and sabot above, XM144 with GP sabot, 10gr SPIW flechette above, .330 Amron Aerojet triple flechette, 9.53x76mmR Winchester quadruple flechette, AAI 5.56x45mm ACR flechette, Steyr 5.56x45mm ACR plastic cased telescoped flechette. Sabot rounds, left to right: XM645 SPIW flechette with compressed disintegrating puller sabot, XM645 SPIW flechette with glass polyester disintegrating puller sabot, 5.77/4.32 Frankford with polymer cup pusher sabot, 5.56x45mm AAI ACR flechette with petal-type puller sabot. Far right is a pulled SPIW sabot and flechette.

Future Firearms Ammunition Technology 003: Sabots – Performance-Enhancing Shoes for Your Bullets

One of the problems of small arms ammunition is that of swept volume. That is, the most ballistically efficient projectiles are the longest and thinnest ones, which cut through the air more easily than squatter, fatter projectiles. Yet, the best projectiles from a [Read More…]

So far, the polymer composite case has only found purchase with low-power specialty ammunition, such as the plastic blank and fired 7.62mm UTM marking round, both on the right. Several commercial composite cased rounds have been tried, including the grey .223 Remington PCA ammunition. In the 1970s, Frankford Arsenal and AAI experimented with composite cased ammunition, represented by the white cased round in the middle. On the left is a standard Korean-made M855 round.

Future Firearms Ammunition Technology 002: Polymer-Cased Composite Ammunition – Lightening the Load, Pt. 2

In the last installment, we talked about the growing need throughout the 20th Century to reduce the weight of the cartridge case, to lighten the burden of the soldier. Experiments in aluminum have thus far proven unsuccessful, but another material is even more [Read More…]

Aluminum cased rounds, left to right: .30 T65 Light Rifle aluminum experimental, .280/30 British aluminum experimental, 6x50mm SAW aluminum experimental, 9.53x76mm Winchester quadruple flechette, .330 Amron Aerojet triple flechette. Today, aluminum cases are only used in low pressure applications, like the Omark Industries short range training round on the far right.

Future Firearms Ammunition Technology 001: Aluminum Cased Ammunition – Lightening the Load, Pt. 1

The metallic cartridge case was invented in the 1840s, and – starting in the 1860s – its military application brought with it a host of of advantages for the soldier: Now, ammunition was self-contained, weatherproof, and durable. Yet, despite it being a [Read More…]

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Modern Intermediate Full Power Calibers 019: The Russian 6x49mm Unified

What happens when you take the two concepts of a traditional, full-power rifle and machine gun round, and a small-caliber, high-velocity round, and smash them together? You get one of the most extreme military small arms calibers ever developed, and one of the last [Read More…]

.30 caliber rounds: .30-06 M2 AP, .303 Mk. VII, 7.5x54 Balle C, 7.9x57 sS Patrone, 7.62x54R LPS Ball, 7.62x51 NATO S Patrone (Austria). 5.8x42DBP-10 On the right are two types of 7.62 NATO round, the M80 and M80A1, alongside two of its predecessors. Center left is the .30 T104 ball cartridge using the 1948 T1E1 case. Left is the .300 Savage, which was the starting point for what became the 7.62 NATO. The 4.85 British (center) was developed in the UK and competed in the NATO trials that eventually standardized on the Belgian 5.56mm SS109 load (left). Like the similar German 4.9x45mm DAG (right), it is based on the 5.56mm case. Two .280/30 cartridges, and their immediate ancestors. The .280 concept was inspired by the German 7.92x33 Kurz caliber on the far left, but demands for standardization in testing with the US-developed .30 T65 cartridge (center left) resulted in rounds after 1949 using the same case head as that round. 0810162235bn On the right are the two major iterations of the 6mm SAW, the 45mm steel cased version, and the 50mm aluminum cased version. In the middle is a modified .25 Winchester experimental round used for ballistic testing in the early part of the SAW program. On the far left is 5.56mm M855, which became the eventual chambering for the resulting M249 SAW. The 6x35mm KAC/TSWG flanked by its parent, the .221 Remington Fireball on the left, and the 5.56x45mm on the right, which it is designed to duplicate from shorter barrel lengths. A 5.45x39mm 7N6 cartridge, flanked by two of its predecessors. The 5.6x39mm (left) was developed from an early Soviet ballistic test round using the 7.62x39mm case head, which was designed to duplicate the performance of the early .222 Remington Special (right), later renamed the .223 Remington. 5.56mm (left) alongside some of its competitors. The .25-45 Sharps flanked by the 5.56mm M855 and Mk. 262 rounds. 7.62x40 WT next to its parent, the 5.56mm. On the right are two .300 AAC Blackout rounds, alongside the green-tipped 5.56mm and shorter .221 Remington Fireball that serves as the round's parent case. PHOTO_20160627_233051 PHOTO_20160628_002920

Taking a Closer Look at the Cycle: Firing (Operating Systems 201)

In the first post of the 101 level series on firearms operating systems, we briefly described what the word cycle means in terms of the operation of automatic firearms. However, there’s a lot more to the cycle of an automatic firearm than just the completion of [Read More…]

GOvWgPM P1030632 I am using this image because it's awesome. 105mm_tank_gun_Rifling IMG_0947 PHOTO_20160612_010947fixed M16_rifle_Firing_FM_23-9_Fig_2-7 The author's Colt 6920 AR-15, which has given him years of reliable service over thousands of rounds of ammunition fired.

Meet the “Black Rifle”: An Introduction to the AR-15

It’s no good to discuss how firearms work without also giving the context surrounding the firearms themselves. With that said, let’s talk about the AR-15, its copycats, competitors, and relatives. Together these rifles share space under the loose umbrella [Read More…]

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Operating Systems 201: Rotary Locking

We introduced you to the concept of locking in a previous one of our 201-level posts on how firearms work, and today we’re going to talk about what has become the most common locking mechanism for rifles: Rotary locking. If to lock an action, you need to create [Read More…]

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