Russia’s New Small Arms Training System Simulates Real Gunfire

Russia has adopted a small arms training system called 1U35M (1У35М)․ It is designed by a company called TsNII Toch Mash (ЦНИИ Точ Маш, stands for Central Scientific – Research Institute for Precision Machine Engineering). The system simulates both the gun report and the recoil impulse. So it is as close to a real gunfire as possible.

This training system consists of the targeting sensors, sound and recoil imitation mechanisms and replicas of actual guns. The replica guns are identical to their real counterparts both in dimensions and weight. Controls of those training guns are also identical to originals. So the trainee can learn how to operate the weapon system (safety, magazine and charging handle manipulations) and how to aim/shoot. The built-in system fully duplicates the recoil of a real gun both in the single shot and full auto modes. This system is possible to use for AK-74, RPK-74, PKM, RPG-7 and GP-25 (under barrel grenade launcher) weapons training. Depending what kind of weapon is chosen, report and recoil imitation mechanism adjust accordingly. Shooters can also choose between different types of static or moving targets. The 1U35M collects the DOPE data of each trainee and allows to analyze shooter’s mistakes and correct the errors.

Another part of the training system is the software for learning the theory of shooting discipline. The software allows simulating real word environments by inputting data such as distance to target, target size, wind speed and direction etc. Then with the preset ballistics of the chosen weapon, students can calculate the impact points and practice in making the proper adjustments on virtual scope reticles.

This training system is a result of two-year work of the company and it allows quickly and effectively train a large number of recruits in a relatively short time period. Thirty sets of such systems are already in use with Russian armed forces and probably more will be supplied in future.


Hrachya H

Being a lifelong firearms enthusiast, Hrachya always enjoys studying design, technology and history of guns and ammunition. His knowledge of Russian allows him to translate and make Russian/Soviet/Combloc small arms related information available for the English speaking audience.
Should you need to contact him, feel free to shoot him a message at


  • xebat

    Ummmm … this is nothing new. I’ve used a system like this in combination with a big projection screen in boot camp. How is this “new” ?

  • Caffeinated

    So they discovered the FATS system 30 years too late?

    • iksnilol

      As far as I know FATS doesn’t simulate ballistics. This one seems like it does.

      • Chris22lr

        FATS was meant to teach really fundamental basics of shooting like getting proper sight picture, pulling the trigger, and reaction to the recoil. In Poland (back in the Cold War) we used air guns and .22 rifles for that.

        Ballistics is something which was a little bit above of the technology back in the day, and let’s be honest – you still have to train with real guns on real range. For military this is not a problem. This system (1U35M) is really not so astonishing when you compare it to modern training simulators used by (for example) US, UK or Australians. 1U35M is like FATS combined with SCATT – it’s good to learn basics of marksmanship but nothing else. Now ask yourself, what is cheaper for military – buying FATS-like systems, or just having recruits jog to the nearest range? You know see why FATS had a rather short life span.

        On the other hand we have all these tactical simulators (like VBS with it’s peripherals, or MILES allowing training in field, or Polish Snieznik which is VBS poor cousin and still light-years better than 1U35M) that simulate ballistics, recoil and also allow you to learn and train team work, communications and so on. This makes such technology far more important for military, and that’s why tactical simulators of various types are all the rage now. These systems allow you to learn scenarios that are otherwise impossible to simulate on the range. When compared to these systems, and their purpose, 1U35M is simply 30 years too late.

        Oh, and now for my personal Cool-Story-Bro: once I took an introductory course/class for firearm instructors. During one lesson we were shown SCATT as an example of modern training tool. Students were of various backgrounds: civilians (like me), retired and active LE/military including members of several SF units (who just wanted to get their instructor papers). Everybody took several “shots” with SCATT set-up on HK USP. When my turn came I got results like 10.8, 10.9, 10.9 and so on. I was simply SCATT Champion and “out-shot” people with years of experience of both target and combat shooting. Do I need to tell that on real range I’m unable to shoot so well even with Olympic-class target pistol?

  • John

    You really want to get them over the jitters have them play paint ball completely naked. Nothing will make you dodge bullets “Neo” in the Matrix style like getting hit in the nads by 3 grams of paint and plastic screaming in at 500 fps!

    • Phillip Cooper

      Sadistic B#stard, aren’t ya?

  • micmac80

    With billions of rounds in cold war storage depos, there is no fear of having to use this much at all.

    • iksnilol

      Meh, rounds ain’t problem. Space is.

      This allows to train at 500 meters without having a 500 meter range.

      • SP mclaughlin

        But Russia does has 17,075,200 km of landmass to shoot on…

        • iksnilol

          Yeah, but this allows makign more compact, more efficent training facilities.

          • Major Tom

            Why? Russia is literally the size of a continent. They have no need for “compact” anything when it comes to training areas.

          • iksnilol

            You can train more recruits per square meter.

          • Major Tom

            There are more square meters of open space in Russia than they have people!

            Really, there’s no reason for compact anything there.

          • AD

            I would hate to have to live in a country that has less than one square meter of land per person in total… or did you mean square kilometers?

          • Phillip Cooper

            Hello Major Tom, it’s Ground Control…

            The problem is more complex than just people divided by land area.

          • Cottersay


          • Tassiebush

            I can understand the appeal if you don’t have to coordinate the transport of large numbers of people and there’s no need to set up a range, provide ammo and cleaning gear etc. For a military the size of Russia’s it would potentially reduce costs and increase frequency of practice. I’m guessing It’d hold a lot of appeal particularly with urban area based troops. There’s certainly nothing like shooting an actual rifle though.

        • Jeremy Nettles

          This conversation is hilarious.

          ‘This is a more efficient use of space.’

          ‘Why would you need to use space more efficiently?’

          ‘Because it is a more efficient use of space.’

          ‘Yeah, but why would you need to use space more efficiently?’

          ‘Because…it is a more efficient use of space.”


          ‘It’s…well, it’s…a more efficient use of space.’

  • Major Tom

    The first picture made me think they were making a double-barrelled AK (Gast principle like the Nikonov machine gun in Project Abakan?). That would’ve been much cooler.

  • Martin Grønsdal

    With so much effort, why not just drive to a proper range 🙂

  • Phillip Cooper

    So basically they made The Weaponeer, 30 years late…

  • Boris

    they train recruits in Russia ???