Korean Scientists Develop Lightweight Steel Stronger, Cheaper Than Titanium

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Light? Strong? Tough? Cheap? A new material developed in Korea promises all of the above, and could throw open wide doors in many industries, including small arms development.

The weight and efficacy of small arms is highly dependent on the materials used to make them. Lightweight materials like aluminum or polymer are used wherever possible, and only where they are absolutely needed, such as the pressure-bearing barrel and locking surfaces, are heavier materials like steel applied. A good material for small arms construction should be both light and strong, with a high specific strength, while also being ductile and tough. Beyond that, however, materials suitable for small arms production also need to be easy to work in multiple ways (suitable for stamping, machining, welding, forging, etc), and, perhaps above all, cheap. It’s these last two requirements that exclude, with few exceptions, titanium, which is extremely strong and tough, from being a good material for this purpose.

However, this new development could overturn the existing paradigm of aluminum, traditional steel and polymer. The material is an alloy of steel and aluminum, a marriage that previously resulted in a brittle, useless alloy, due to coalesced bands of material that were very hard, but fragile, which acted as “fault lines” in the material, causing them to crack. An article at SAE International explains how the Korean scientists solved this problem:

Probably the most surprising point about the new steel composition is that it gains its mass advantage through the addition of aluminum, a low-density alloying agent that had been tried many times before but had always yielded unsuitably brittle results. Decades ago metallurgists in Russia and elsewhere attempted to add aluminum to steel, and even though the resulting metal was very strong and lightweight, it invariably had little ductility—that is, when subjected to large forces, it would break rather than bend. Manufacturing products from a low-ductility metal is very difficult.

Photomicrography studies subsequently revealed that the experimental aluminum-rich steel alloys contained a very hard but very brittle cubic crystal of iron and aluminum called B2 that made them mostly unusable. B2 is an intermetallic compound—a crystalline material in which different elements replace other more typical elements in certain atomic sites. In the previous high-aluminum steel formulations, the B2 intermetallic compounds tended to arrange themselves into brittle bands at which the material would shear off when stressed.

Dispersion-strengthened steel

“My original idea was that if I could somehow induce the formation of these B2 crystals, I might be able to disperse them in the steel,” Kim said. He and his colleagues realized that if nanometer-scale B2 crystallites were uniformly distributed as a secondary phase throughout the steel’s ductile austenite (face-centered cubic crystal) primary alloy phase, they would strengthen the whole by halting microscopic crack propagation much like strong carbon fibers serve to reinforce the more flexible resin matrix in a polymer composite material.

After spending years researching the concept, the trio found that by adding nickel to the mix (which includes carbon and manganese besides iron and aluminum) and then specially annealing, or heat-treating, the solidified metal, B2 precipitates would evenly permeate the metal in nanometer-sized clusters rather than long bands. The small percentage of nickel, which reacts with the aluminum, offered greater control over B2 formation, as nickel made the crystals precipitate out at a much higher temperature.

The benefits of a successful steel-aluminum alloy are very great. Besides the lower density, the SAE International article expounds on its material benefits:

Recently, however, three materials scientists at the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology at Pohang University of Science and Technology in South Korea have come up with another potential option—lightweight steel. Professors Hansoo Kim and Nack J. Kim, together with doctoral student Sang-Heon Kim, have developed a low-density steel alloy that exhibits higher specific tensile strength and ductility than titanium alloys—the lightest and strongest metals known, but potentially at one-tenth the cost, according to a paper published in the February 5th issue of the journal Nature. (Seehttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v518/n7537/full/nature14144.html)

“Because of its lightness, our steel may find many applications in automotive and aircraft manufacturing,” Hansoo Kim stated in an e-mail communication.

“We developed a new type of flexible, ultra-strong, lightweight steel that is 13% less dense than normal steel and has a strength-to-weight ratio that matches even our best titanium alloys,” Kim said.

What benefits could this bring to the firearms industry? Besides the obvious application as a lighter alternative to other steels in parts like hammers, triggers, gas blocks, flash hiders, and other minor parts, or (if it proves to be stamp-able or forge-able) a new material for receivers, the steel also holds promise as a material for use in military rifle barrels. The current limiting factor in the weight of an infantry rifle barrel is not strength, nor is it stiffness, but heat capacity. Modern select-fire rifles are expected to go through such torturous courses of fire that they are being fitted with heavier and heavier barrels that last longer in fully automatic. The new Korean steel alloy is alloyed with aluminum, meaning it may have a higher specific heat capacity than conventional steel. If so, an infantry rifle barrel made from the Korean steel (perhaps with a 4150 liner) could be made lighter than its counterparts made of 4150, with benefits possibly great enough for a barrel the weight of a standard M4-profile barrel to have a heat capacity equivalent to an M4A1 SOCOM profile barrel, saving a quarter pound of weight. This is pure speculation by someone who is not a materials scientist, of course, but it is illustrative of the variety of applications this material could have in small arms alone.

Perhaps the most promising application is given by the US Army’s new M240L machine gun, which is an example of a weapon where pressure for reduced weight has so completely overridden cost concerns that the receiver has been machined from titanium alloy. Titanium is not only an expensive material, but it is very difficult to machine efficiently, and it requires skilled labor and special techniques to do so. While titanium-machining is an art that is steadily being perfected, it is still very expensive. The new Korean steel could be substituted for titanium in future versions of the M240, or another machine gun design, to give a weapon that has a light, strong receiver while retaining the unstoppable reliability that the Belgian MAG is known for, and most importantly, at a greatly reduced cost versus the titanium-receiver M240L.

All of this depends, however, on how easily the new steel can be worked and machined. Even the greatest wonder-material will receive only limited application if it cannot be easily worked into shape. The SAE article says this on the subject:

Production process tests

In their experiment, the researchers melted about 40 kg (88 lb) of the steel alloy in an induction furnace with a protective argon atmosphere and cast it into a rectangular ingot, Kim reported. Following a homogenization treatment—1150°C (2102°F) for 2 hours—the ingot was hot-rolled into strips 3 mm (0.12 in) in thickness. The hot-rolled strips were cold-rolled into 1-mm (0.04-in) -thick sheets that were next annealed at 870 to 900°C (1598 to 1652°F) for 2 to 60 minutes. The sheets were then immediately water-quenched or rapidly cooled to 25°C (77°F).

“All the steps except for the casting are very similar to the existing processes for industrial sheet steel production,” he noted.

Subsequent joining tests showed that “our steel can be welded by electrical resistance spot welding, laser welding, and argon TIG welding,” Kim said.

He stressed that the team’s B2-dispersion method is really more important than the new alloy: “Steel scientists all over the world can make many variants of our steel for their own applications based on the novel microstructure, which comprises a steel alloy matrix and intermetallic precipitates.”

The Pohang University researchers are now working with the South Korean company Posco, one of the world’s largest steel manufacturers, to scale up their technology.

“We are planning a mill trial production of our steel this year at Posco, not for direct commercialization but for checking possible difficulties that are frequently met during scale-up,” he said. “If everything goes smoothly, you may see our steel on the market in two to three years.”

How long will it take for small arms designers to take advantage of the new steel, if it is successfully brought to market? It is impossible to tell now, but if and when they do, it could cause some exciting changes to the current paradigm.

 

Thanks to John for the tip!



Nathaniel F

Nathaniel is a history enthusiast and firearms hobbyist whose primary interest lies in military small arms technological developments beginning with the smokeless powder era. In addition to contributing to The Firearm Blog, he runs 196,800 Revolutions Per Minute, a blog devoted to modern small arms design and theory. He can be reached via email at nathaniel.f@staff.thefirearmblog.com.


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  • Gjert Klakeg Mulen

    But is it as good? Can it take as much of a punch as steel or titanium?

    • According to the metallurgical properties, it works the same or better than pure Ti or Nickel alloyed Ti.

      • What I’m not clear on is if it’s hard enough to be used alone for rifle barrels. I didn’t see anything in the Nature page about it, but I also didn’t pay for the paper. It seems like it could work with a liner, at least.

        • We’ll need SAE,ISO, AISI to standardize the mechanical properties. Also POSCO won’t be the only one to try this B2 precipitate separation method. I’m sure other manufacturers like ThyssenKrupp and Nippon Steel will experiment with their own versions (patent infringement notwithstanding).

          • Right, and I don’t see much in the publicly available data about the steel’s hardness…

          • @nathaniel_f:disqus It might be included in the paid paper, but I’ll have to get the $32 for it by selling some useless 54R ammo I have no need for.

          • Paladin

            Well there’s this evening’s reading, I’ll take a look at it.

          • yeah its lengthy.

          • Paladin

            I may have to pour a second drink 🙂

          • Paladin

            Just finished it, was a pretty interesting read. I’d like to know how long a standard M60 barrel would last under the same test regimen as a comparison, but a cursory search didn’t turn up anything.

          • My guess was that it was a one off experiment just too see what Inconel would do. I don’t think they would actually implement it b/c of cost.

        • Paladin

          I have heard that the primary reason Ti is a no-go for barrels is that it erodes too easily, so I suppose hardness would be a big factor.

  • TheNotoriousIUD

    And only 9,000 times as expensive.

    • Actually, it is a 1/10 of the cost of Triple Nickel Ti.

  • JumpIf NotZero

    Numbers do not compute. 13% less density than steel does not get even near the density and strength ratio of titanium which is approx 50% of course depending on what steel we’re talking about.

    There are articles like this every few months. The next wonder material… Coming never because it can’t be made in any sort of volume.

    Calling it premature to relate to guns is an overstatement.

    • I am given to understand that the strength of the material is much higher than conventional steels, which is how it has a higher S/W ratio than titanium.

      • JumpIf NotZero

        I would disregard anyone who uses “steel” for anything. Are we talking 303? 600 series inconel like in silencers? Cold roll?

        I use 303 or similar when people say “steel”, something like 7-8g/cm^3 density and those usually have about the same tensile as Ti which is 4.5g/cm^3 or so.

        So typically I figure 1/2 the weight for the same strength.

        The article just saying “steel” is skeptical to me.

        • If you actually read the article in Nature, they compare it to K-Carbide strengthened Triplex steel and PHS.

          Here is the extended data table:

          http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v518/n7537/fig_tab/nature14144_ST2.html

          Note that the strength is equivalent to Ti6Al4V and PHS, but the density is closer to Triplex steels. Hence the very high S/W ratio.

          • JumpIf NotZero

            … You know density is effectively the weight right? We’re talking the same mass, so I kinda don’t think that chart means what you think it means.

            I’m seeing a 25% increase in strength over 6Al4V/Gr5 Ti at low temp, and upto 100% more at very very high temps… But about 50% more weight. So not surprising since we know that Ti loses a lot of T/U strength at high heats.

            WONDER MATERIAL!!….. ? Not nearly as light as your article is making people here think. And I really do struggle to see how this is relavent to guns at all. When there are HSSS barrels you can jump up and down.

          • I never said it was a wonder material, I said it could replace titanium in certain applications while being cheaper and easier to work.

            Also, my article made people believe it was 13% less dense than steel, which it plainly is on the data sheet.

          • JSmath

            There’s a difference between healthy skepticism and being a foolish crone. You are being the latter. Equivalently, you’re those douches who said guns would never be made with aluminum. “The stuff we make SODA CANS OUTTA? Pah! Never!” “Back in my day, we made all our barrels out of carbon steel and that was good enough! Stainless steel? Not if you clean and oil your weapon correctly!”

            I too am curious what the corrosion properties will be. If it does hold up favorably (which, for all intents and purposes a good understanding of chemistry implies it should), then it does mark a step up for firearms technology.

            I am actually also curious if they didn’t maybe accidentally stumble on the basis for this technique by sampling the structures of the alloys formed by aluminum-to-steel FSW, which are known to be moderately corrosion resistant.

    • There are articles like this every few months. The next wonder material… Coming never because it can’t be made in any sort of volume.

      This attempt to add Aluminium into steel has been attempted by the Soviets in the 70’s and they were failures. Metallurgists have been trying for decades to get this to work. It was only until Dr. Kim was able to use nanotechnology to separate the B2 precipitates via the addition of nickel was it possible. The methodology to this had been around. It was the tech that was need to catch up.

      • JumpIf NotZero

        Ok. I look forward to seeing it…. Likely never though.

        We don’t even see 8000-series aluminum often because it’s so expensive, and that’s just aluminum and magnesium for the most part.

        There is a world of difference between “we can make this” and “here you can buy this”

        • What you need to understand is that this takes years to develop to the point where it is ok to manufacture on a mass scale. Think 6-10 years until you’ll begin to see it in various alloys like how we have with aluminium alloys.
          8000 is expensive partly because it isn’t that much better than 7000, so lots of mechanical engineers aren’t using it for its bad cost/benefit ratio. This steel may help close the gap from Aluminium to Titanium in the strength to weight ratio as well as the cost ratio.
          I’ve been machining Triple Nickel Ti for the about a year now, and believe me I would love to have this steel TODAY.

          • JumpIf NotZero

            Yea… I’ve seen you multiple times post “triple Nickle Ti” but have never heard anything even remotely like that. What grade are you talking about? Because machinists typically use the proper grade/alloy/brand name when talking about metals.

          • @jumpifnotzero:disqus Here is the designation: Ti5Al5V5Mo3Cr or Ti5553
            Mouthful ain’t it? I say triple nickel Ti for sake of brevity.
            It’s become quite popular among aerospace companies to machine due to its good casting and high tensile strength over Ti-6Al-4V. But its even more difficult to machine if you don’t use the right tooling(and constant engagement toolpaths).

      • stimr2

        POSCO actually established Pohang University of Science and Technology(POSTECH) and most likely will own the rights to the research.

    • burt

      what are your credentials

      • JumpIf NotZero

        I’m not dumb. I’m a bit of a machinist. I’ve studied a little metallurgy. Doesn’t matter, not good enough for anyone on the Internet.

        • Rick5555

          To be honest, I thought you made a well though out argument. And I totally understood your comments. However, I’m a surgeon and have my Masters in Chemistry. As well as, dabble in metallurgy…sort of a hobby of mine. When I read the article…I thought the same thing. Wonder Material. Only time will tell. If history is an representation of the future. Not many of these new materials ever make it to being commercialized. A lot more testing needs to be conducted. Sounds promising though and peeked my interest…for now.

      • Credentials don’t matter, it’s whether or not you understand a subject that proves your merit.

    • RocketScientist

      So you came to this brilliant conclusion by factoring in the change in one variable (weight/density) and completely ignored the other half of the weight/density-to-strength ratio (namely strength). While it seems you might not meet the standard for employment as a materials scientist in Good Korea, you might have a future in the sciences further north in Best Korea (all hail our Most Glorious Brilliant Leader!).

    • JSmath

      Density in itself only refers to one thing regarding metals/compounds: Kg/m^3 or lb/in^3.

      “… steel that is 13% less dense than normal steel and has a strength-to-weight ratio that matches even our best titanium alloys.”

      Note to self: JumpIf does not know what the word density means, do not engage in materials debates.

  • Lance

    Cheaper answer scrap M-240L and adopt M-60E6!!!!!

    • M60E6 is a great gun, but it would have a hard time replacing the M240.

      An M240L variant with a receiver made of the Korean stuff would be cheaper than the current Ti receivered 240s, and probably just as good.

      • LCON

        just for haha’s thw weight of the FN M240L is 22.3 pounds

        The Barrett M240LW is 21.51 and already uses a steel receiver

  • iksnilol

    VZ58 made out of this :O

  • You’re very welcome Nat. ’bout time I contributed something to TFB than ranting in the comments!

  • MPWS

    Steel, basically Iron (Fe) with 7.8 g/cm3. Want to make it lighter? I suggest Titanium – combustion engine valves are made out of it.

    • Yeah, but Ti costs WAY MORE $$$$$$ than steel. And much more money to machine and forge.

  • marathag

    Can it be Blued, or Welded without losing those properties– if so will replace many alloys

    • Probably, since it is a steel matrix alloy, all steel compatible coatings should work.

  • Southpaw89

    Very interesting, if this is real it could be revolutionary not only in the firearms industry, but in the automotive and aviation industries as well, not to mention countless others, considering that the materials being alloyed are relatively cheap compared to titanium. If it does work out I wonder what the cost would be compared to steel or aluminum components, although the cost of machining such a metal may be the limiting factor. Now lets get an AR and an AK made from this and run some torture tests on em’.

    • I suspect this will not matter so much for infantry rifles, since not a whole lot is demanded of their receivers. Could be a major paradigm shift for machine guns, however.

      The Jim Sullivan answer is that it will make machine guns light and cheap enough that they just replace rifles and allow infantry to run in Fun Mode all the time. 😉

      • Secundius

        @ Nathaniel F.

        The Best “Bolt” Steel is Arisaka Steel/Magnesium Alloy or No. 1085 which is a 80-90% Carbon Steel with 0.6-0.8% Magnesium Combination. Exact formula is Considered a State Secret…

    • Edeco

      Yep, interesting. From my perspective, could be a tempest in a teapot, but maybe not… Sky’s the limit as to how things would change with a better, cheaper metal.

  • DanGoodShot

    A steel like this could be an absolute game changer if you really think of the endless applications of it. But above all, the places where the lack of a material like this has been holding projects back or hampering progress as in robotics, missile development, etc and let’s not forget surgical procedures.

    • DIR911911 .

      my iron man suit will thank them 🙂

      • Tassiebush

        I’m looking forward to owning a nuclear powered steel airship

        • DanGoodShot

          I think its unobtainium and I want to make a shield out of it.

          • Tassiebush

            I reckon we’ll see a real life super hero Captain Korea soon.

        • Secundius

          @ Tassiebush.

          Actually “Graphene” would be a better material, with a tensile strength of ~150,000,000psi able to stop a 1-grain projectile traveling at 0.0003c (~89,937.7374m/sec.)…

    • Reef Blastbody

      How do you say “Reardon Metal” in Korean? 😀

      • Giolli Joker

        Lealdon Metal?

        (Shouldn’t it be ReadEn? BTW, I was completely ignorant, I simply googled)

        • Reef Blastbody

          Nah, I was referencing “Atlas Shrugged” and Hank Reardon’s wonder-steel plot device.

  • whodywei

    Not sure this type of steel should be used to make barrels because steel and aluminum have different thermal expansion coefficient.

    • I’m not sure either. However, aluminum-sleeved barrels have been used in limited applications, and this steel’s properties might make it a viable alternative for a sleeve in more intensive applications, with a 4150 liner, perhaps. Like I said, however, that’s just speculation by me, and I am not a metallurgist.

      The most obvious application to me is cost reduction for the M240L machine gun.

      • I suspect that since it is a steel matrix alloy, it will exhibit a lot of the same properties in hardness, but of course only the future will tell.

  • Sianmink

    South Korea? Obviously, the preferred application is enormous swords.

  • @nathaniel_f:disqus You might want to check out the Inconel barrels too. Might be of interest.

    • Shmoe

      Isn’t Inconel is a very dense, very expensive alloy? i got the impression that the idea was to make something that had similar physical properties (and costs) to high grade steel while being less dense (lighter).

      • No, the purpose of the experiment was to find out if going to a Inconel barrel would maintain itself better to heat(and accuracy) in a MG enviornment than Cromoly barrel. Cost & weight wasn’t something they cared for in the experiment.

  • Reef Blastbody

    I imagine NIJ Level IV plates that weigh a pound or two. If it’s that tough/light, you should be able to get the ballistic rating with relatively thin plates, and it’ll be cheaper than AR500 to boot. No more worrying about brittle ceramic SAPI plates, and repeat hit capability.

    • wedelj1231

      This is the real application where I think it has the potential to make the most difference.

    • Phil Hsueh

      I was thinking the same thing, it could make a huge difference in body armor if it’s as good as they make it sound like it is. Another area it would be good for is armored vehicles, esp. lightly armored ones like Marine Corps Amtracs and Army Strykers, this new alloy could, potentially, allow light armored vehicles to have a much stronger armor without the weight penalty that they incur now a days.

  • noob

    Who wants to be the first person to suggest to Eugene Stoner to make a select fire variant of the SR-25 with a barrel made of this aluminium steel alloy? *ducks*

    • noob

      I just realized that Mr Stoner passed away in 1997. I feel bad now.

  • DW

    If true, 0.8mm ultralight AKM incoming?

    • Be more ambitious than that… How about a ultralight MILLED receiver!

  • Blake

    I’d love to have a bicycle made of this stuff.

    • A DH MTB at the cost of a steel frame would be awesome.

  • Shmoe

    Assuming that Nathaniel’s (reasonable) assumption about improvements in heat conduction are correct, the first application that occurs to me, besides barrels and bolts, would be lightweight suppressors. Titanium, in addition to being expensive and hard to work with, is a terrible conductor, it can take the heat relatively well but dissipates it very poorly. The reason I bring that particular application up, suppressors are a high markup aftermarket item that institutions and individuals seem willing to pay for. Thus, it might be one of the first places we might see a firearm application.

    • I’m note sure this would be the greatest bolt material.

      • Shmoe

        Possibly, or possibly not, I’m sure we both looking forward to knowing more about this new alloy and it’s applications.

  • JumpIf NotZero

    You know… :/ that loses a ton of effect when you say “derp derp let me google that for you”

    • Redfoot

      Naw, I feel that it is heightened quite a but.

    • iksnilol

      Makes it more fun for us others.

      The higher the horse, the worse you’ll fall of it eventually.

  • Frank Jaeger

    We just gonna wait for K3 machine gun built from this material by Daewoo in the future and see how many percent of reduced weight on that said machine gun.

  • smartacus

    i’ll be honest; i’m more interested in what this means for vehicle weight.

  • missourisam

    Does anyone besides me notice that technological advances are now being made in every other country than the USA? Think maybe we have dumbed down our school systems to be so politically correct and not hurt anyone’s feelings because they are not as gifted as their classmates that we are now at a disadvantage. The generation that made America great was encouraged to compete and do their best, and were rewarded when they excelled. If little Johnny or Janey was slower, they were not used as the standard and everyone else had to meet their lower standards. The federal government is a disaster in almost every venue of endeavor it has undertaken in the past five decades. Once the feds got into education, and took it away from the states and local communities education has suffered. The federal government used to be able to defend the nation, and even that has deteriorated to the point no one respects us or even our ability to defend ourselves.

  • LetsTryLibertyAgain

    I had seen news of the new steel in engineering articles, but the info in this firearms perspective article was very good, other than the added speculations from someone who is “not a materials scientist”. Adding aluminum to a steel alloy will not magically confer aluminum’s heat transfer properties, which are based on an aluminum lattice structure. The new steel has nanometer sized aluminum rich B2 crystallites suspended in the steel, and they are very unlikely to improve the heat transfer. The opposite is more likely. The speculation on the possible use of the new steel to replace titanium in M240L receivers seems more likely.

    And as Reef Blastbody commented below, a light but tough steel might have applications in bullet resistant plates, for vests and light armor for vehicles. As the inventor claims, this new steel should have major applications for automotive and aircraft structures.

    This steel should have been invented in the US, over a decade ago, but US monetary policy has all but killed heavy manufacturing in the US. We have few remaining steel mills, and the big steel companies that were doing this sort of R&D are long gone. RIP US manufacturing. I guess we can all sell each other insurance and financial services.

    • Ben Pottinger

      Actually we only recently got passed up by China in 2010 for the share of global manufacturing. We also spend significantly more on R&D in the manufacturing sector then the rest of the world does. In addition, the majority of our manufacturing sector is very high tech, pharmaceutical, electronics, aviation, etc.

      It’s certainly declined in the past 20 years, but it’s far from the apocalypse the doom sayers are so fond of preaching.

  • Brad Ferguson

    Where this new steel will make the most difference is in cars. If this steel cam be used for crankshafts, cam shafts, brake rotors, nuts and bolts. You could knock 500 to 1000lbs out of a car in a hurry. This could be a revolutionary product.

  • The Brigadier

    The Material Sciences continue to double their knowledge every four months and they have been doing this for five years now. There are a host of new materials in everything and there is no way we can hear about all of it. Some things are there waiting for a financier. A case in point is Li-Ion batteries. Northwestern U. found that if you add a relatively thin layer of graphene between lithium layers the batteries run much, much cooler eliminating the fire and explosive hazard and as impotantly doubles the output of the batteries. The ions that move very slowly through the lithium get a speed boost every time they pass through the graphene layers. This moves the ions through faster and the battery power is effectively doubled and the heat from friction is reduced by 85%. Charging time is also reduced in half

    The Ardennes Lab of DARPA the DoD materials development agency discovered if you had 13% manganese to the cathode in a Li-Ion battery you double the capacity yet again and reduce the charging time by half again

    A graduate student at UT El Paso found out that instead of making graphene from graphite that costs about $200 an ounce, he discovered how to make graphene from used motor oil for about 4 cents an ounce. Northwestern and DARPA’s discoveries were made in 2011 and yet have not been incorporated in any Li-Ion batteries. These breakthroughs would give a Tesla car a 1200 mile range per charge and could be recharged in only 30 minutes. There is a world of near miraculous material science being discovered daily. Some of its suppressed by greedy industries, and others are waiting for developers to make it.

    Go online and see the amazing metal alloys that have been discovered just this year alone.

  • Jamie Clemons

    13% less dense its not a huge amount, but every bit counts and the strength of the material sounds promising, but is it really what they claim?

  • Secundius

    United States Steel is owned by Posco Steel of South Korea…