Designed Right: The Colt CMG-3

At this point, I’ve written relatively few articles about small arms design in general, due to my time going to a certain other writing project. However, small arms design and theory has always captivated me, since the beginning of my interest in firearms. Ian McCollum’s recent Forgotten Weapons video about the CMG-3 has really excited my interest, as the Colt machine gun design is a virtual incarnation of “best design practices”. The video, which includes disassembly and shooting segments, is embedded below:

So what makes the CMG-3 special, mechanically speaking? For optimum reliability, a small arm must be designed as a system; a common error in small arms design and engineering is “cargo-cult” design that seeks to incorporate as many features or desirable characteristics as possible without regard for how they are integrated into the system and how they affect the reliability and other characteristics of the system. Obviously, a holistic approach to small arms design is better, but having said that there are features that if properly integrated do substantially improve the reliability of a design, and the CMG-3 includes virtually all of the major uncommon ones. These are:

  1. Underlug. When a firearm unlocks is a critical aspect of how well it functions. Typically, the later a firearm unlocks, the less difficulty it will have in unlocking, due to the reduced pressure in the barrel. To facilitate as late an unlocking action as possible, a firearm’s mechanism may incorporate what is called “underlug” (a word which also has some alternate, unrelated meanings), which is a distance the unlocking device (usually a bolt carrier) is allowed to travel without acting upon – that is, unlocking – the locking piece (usually a bolt). Underlug is usually expressed as additional length cut into the front of the cam groove. The CMG-3 has what appears to be an inch or more of underlug, an exceptional – and possibly excessive – amount.
  2. Anti Pre-Engagement. In a locked-breech weapon, the locking piece is often actuated by the compression of the bulk mass of the operating group being compressed against the breechblock by the operating spring. Obviously, a weapon should lock when it goes into battery, and not lock when it’s not in battery, and so in for example a rotary bolt weapon, there must be something preventing the bolt from completing its turning move until it is engaged with the locking surfaces in the barrel or receiver. In an AR-15, the cam-pin is held in place by the receiver walls, but as the cartridge stack pushes on the bolt face during feeding this generates a certain amount of friction, that the action must then overcome. A weapon like the Kalashnikov or Garand, however, circumvents this by preventing the bolt from rotating when it is fully indexed in the feeding position. Both rifles feature a shaped lug which is pressed against a horizontal shelf cut into the bolt carrier, and so long as the bolt is in the vertical feeding position, no amount of force on it will cause it to try to rotate in such a way where it could rub or scrape against the receiver to cause friction. When the bolt reaches the position where it needs to rotate for locking, angles surfaces in the trunnion knock it out of position, and allow it to complete its turning move. While this is the most common incarnation of anti pre-engagement, the CMG-3 uses a different system. Its cam pin, similar to that on the AR-15, is spring loaded. When the bolt is fully extended in the feeding position, the cam pin is driven upwards by its spring, locking it into place in the bottom of the bolt carrier. As the bolt group moves forwards, the cam pin and a cross-pin mounted to it are driven upwards by surfaces in the receiver, allowing the bolt to rotate.
  3. “Broom”-Type Ejector. Removing the cartridge case from the action is critical for the functioning of an automatic firearm, but most firearms rely on momentum to actually eject a cartridge case from the action. This is a reliable and effective method of ejecting the case, but the CMG-3 and only a handful of other designs take it even further, and utilized a sweeping or “broom”-type ejector, that sweeps across the bolt face and physically pushes the cartridge case out of the ejection port. If a design can afford the additional mass and complexity of an extractor of this type, there’s certainly not a surer way to get spent cartridge cases out of the gun.
  4. Controlled-Round Feed. Mauser bolt-action rifles are famous for their massive claw extractors, which facilitate their reliable controlled-round feed action. In most firearms, and overwhelmingly in semiautomatic and fully automatic firearms, rounds are pushed by the bolt into the chamber, and in the final closing action a spring-loaded extractor snaps over the cartridge rim, ready to pull the case from the chamber. However, a controlled round feed firearm slips the cartridge case up a flat bolt face and under the extractor during the feeding cycle, allowing the bolt to control the round on its way to the chamber, for a very sure and trouble-free feeding stroke. By way of analogy, one can think of conventional push-feed as one American football player (representing the magazine) passing the ball (representing the cartridge) to another (representing the bolt). Controlled-round feed would then be that same player handing the ball off instead, a much more reliable way to transfer a ball between players. Controlled-round feed is not without its disadvantages; getting the round from the feed lips to the bolt face and under the extractor requires the round to be released from the magazine at just the right time during its travel forward; too early, and it may jump forward and not be captured by the extractor, too late, and it will jam between the bolt and the receiver. It’s for this reason that controlled-round feed is less commonly used in weapons with detachable, replaceable magazines, as feed lips with incorrect dimensions, either because of a manufacturing defect or damage, can cause severe malfunctions. It should further be reinforced that conventional push-feed is not “unreliable”, it’s simply uncontrolled. In the CMG-3, the extractor is not only designed for controlled-round feed, it is physically milled into the bolt face. On the one hand, this means the extractor is highly unlikely to break. On the other, it means that if and when it does, the whole bolt must be replaced.

Three years ago, Ian covered the CMG-2 machine gun, which is the 5.56mm parent weapon of the CMG-3. That video is embedded below:

Nathaniel F

Nathaniel is a history enthusiast and firearms hobbyist whose primary interest lies in military small arms technological developments beginning with the smokeless powder era. In addition to contributing to The Firearm Blog, he runs 196,800 Revolutions Per Minute, a blog devoted to modern small arms design and theory. He is also the author of the original web serial Heartblood, which is being updated and edited regularly. He can be reached via email at


  • Spencerhut

    Amazing how many great designs never make it to production, or fail to make enough sales.

    • UnrepentantLib

      It certainly looks like it had a lot of promise. It’s kind of a waste that development didn’t continue.

    • Dark Shroud

      Colt seem to be masters of this.

      They have their own version of the Medusa 47 yet refuse to even make them as custom orders.

      All they had to do is make one Colt MC (Multi-Caliber) Revolver and pay to get it onto “The Walking Dead” and run commercials for it during the episodes. Hell they could give it to Carol so that he carries a Colt revolved like his old man.

      Colt Phytons are now selling for around $3k because of the Walking Dead. Medusa 47s are selling for a similar price currently.

      • Let’s not forget the SCAMP, IMP, and MARS, either. The last of which could have become a very popular commercial item, if nothing else!

        • ostiariusalpha

          Let’s go ahead and just forget the IMP. I know it was just a prototype, but DA-YUM that is an ugly gun.

        • ostiariusalpha

          Let’s go ahead and just forget the IMP. I know it was just a prototype, but DA-YUM that is an ugly gun. The SCAMP, on the other hand, is all:

        • roguetechie

          probably my three all time favorite Colt guns! Also someone else mentioned the Medusa…. And Colt’s part in the demise of Phillips and Rodgers is why I prefer not to give them my money to this day!

      • AD

        Are you saying that there’s a Medusa mode 47 featured on the Walking Dead? Which episode (IMFDB doesn’t list it)? I don’t watch that show anymore, but I’m a big fan of the revolver.

        • iksnilol

          He’s saying that if they featured it it would become popular.

        • Dark Shroud

          No, there was never a Medusa 47 on the Walking Dead.

          I’m saying Colt could make their version of the Medusa 47 instantly popular if they put it on the Walking Dead.

          I want one just because the idea of a pistol that can shoot 9mm & .357 is very appealing to me. I just can’t afford the current asking price of the few Medusa 47s that are out there and put up for sale.

          • AD

            Ah, I see now. Yeah, I wish I could own a Medusa. There’s actually several revolvers now that use similar systems for holding rimless cartridges (Charter Arms has a couple, the Korth Skymarshal I think is similar), I keep wondering how hard it would be to take the extractors from those and put them in a 357, and if that would be enough to turn one into a multi-caliber. I remember something about the Medusa having an unusual forcing cone angle, which probably wouldn’t be too hard for a gunsmith to copy.

            Sadly it’s really hard to get permission to own a handgun where I live, so it’s not something I can investigate personally.

  • claymore

    We actually got to fire these for Colt at our range. Pretty good firearm and our commissioner wanted a few but they never became available.

  • Rob

    I guess a controlled feed would make sense for a belted machine gun, considering how much already happens to control the rounds as it stands, having that little bit of control might be an easy thing

    • Kivaari

      Why? Doesn’t the round go straight in like the M60, M240, MG42, M249 etc.?

  • gunsandrockets

    Bottom ejection is a good feature for reliability too.

    • Zebra Dun

      That would have left a modern day Manila John Basilone standing on top of a mountain of empties.

      • gunsandrockets

        Are not 1917 Browning machine guns bottom ejecting?

        • Zebra Dun

          Yes they are.
          Well, Manila John DID pick up his Browning1917 water cooled occasionally during that fight and sweep the area with it like a submachine gun! Perhaps he was simply knocking the piles of empties out of the way. ;^D of course the difference is this machine gun is lighter and is not water cooled.
          Good point!

  • SP mclaughlin

    Straight outta Metal Gear.

  • Don Ward


    Nathaniel Fitch is Zombie Samuel Colt’s sekrit love child!

  • DIR911911 .

    one quickly sees why the stoner won that battle.

  • DW

    They were rejected on the ground of having short receiver life. Wonder what if we build it using modern alloys and methods? It might work just fine.

    • I should think a simple revision of the receiver would probably fix that problem, though a better alloy might also work.

      • DW

        Thicker receiver might be heavier and defeats the purpose of its original goal: Super light weight
        It’s what makes the Stoner 63A so perfect…if and when it decides it has enough crisco to run properly.

        • The 63A reportedly is really lube sensitive, so I am not going to call it “perfect”.

          • DW

            “If and when it decides it has enough crisco to run properly”
            basically a tl;dr from Vicker’s youtube vid, crisco part was just me trollin’

  • Vak

    Looks like a really well thought out gun, but seriously that magazine is unergonomic as all hell.

  • roguetechie

    That era is just chock full of situations like this…
    Amazing guns were everywhere… Annnnddd we didn’t wind up producing any of them….
    I mean seriously, between the guys at AAI TRW Rodman GE Ares, AI (Dutch AR-10 producers who’s name i’d totally flub), Armalite, and a host of other places it made the era of Pedersen, garand, Johnson, and the rest seem relatively bereft of talent.
    IDK…. maybe an explanation is actually able to be derived from this ?
    Mostly though it’s just sad that we don’t even have working examples of most of the really innovative stuff, and some very short sighted and ignorant decisions have even deprived us of the basic documentation and parts drawings for most of the stuff from this entire era.

    • Dark Shroud

      Armalite’s AR-180B would probably find more success now with the current piston drive AR craze. Especially since part of the design philosophy was keeping costs low.

  • noob

    hmm. Does this broom type ejector mean that you could make a forward ejection system too?

  • Ben

    Anyone else wondering how they expected extra drums to be carried? That is the most unwieldy drum I’ve ever seen.

    • Zebra Dun

      Special designated ammo humper no doubt.