Weekly DTIC: An Odd Rifle, A New Caliber

For this week’s DTIC, we have a document that’s not so much significant as it is interesting. Round-Robin Comparison Test of Light Rifle Ammunition Caliber .30 is an early look into the program that would beget the 7.62x51mm NATO round.

An atom-sized history of the 7.62 NATO is probably called for. After World War II, the United States Army was looking to re-arm with a rifle that built on the experiences with the imperfect but decidedly revolutionary M1 Garand rifle. Further, they recognized that the .30-06 caliber was too large, and used too many resources per round, and sought to create a shorter, improved round that would retain the ballistics of the .30-06. Experiments began with .300 Savage cartridge cases loaded with M2 Ball projectiles (a combination designated “T65″), and the ammunition was improved until the cartridge case was 2.015″ long, sported a 20 degree shoulder, and had a 2.8” overall length when loaded with a general-purpose mild steel-cored bullet, the M59 Ball (originally T104E2). This was adopted by the brand-new North Atlantic Treaty Organization as their first standard infantry round, the 7.62mm NATO (the introduction of the .308 Winchester, also based on the T104E2’s FAT1E3 case, would happen 2 years later in 1952, meaning neither the .308 Winchester nor the 7.62 NATO are derivatives of the other, but both actually come from a common lineage). More information on the development of 7.62 NATO can be found here, here, and here. The definitive history of development will be available with the release of the third volume of Hackley, Woodin, and Scranton’s A History Of Modern U.S. Small Arms Ammunition.

The ammunition tested in Round Robin was T65E1, which had a 1.95″ long case and fired a steel-jacketed lead-cored 150gr flat-based bullet of the same design as M2 Ball, and the rifle used was the T28 – a roller-locked American derivative of the German Gerät 03. Like the Gerät 03, the T28 used a short-stroke SVT-like piston, stamped sheet metal construction, and a roller locking mechanism; the weapon was essentially a direct copy of the German design, but chambered for the new experimental cartridge.


The eleventh T28 produced. Very few original German Gerät 03s were made; it is possible that the Americans made more T28s after the war than there were Gerät 03s made during it. Image source: ar15.com.

The T28 rifle would end up as a dead end when development ceased in 1950, superseded by Earl Harvey’s T25 rifle, which was lighter. More pictures of the T28 rifle can be found in this thread on ar15.com.

(The nomenclature of the .30 Light Rifle cartridges that led to the 7.62 NATO is a very complex and easily confused subject. I hope I have correctly matched each designation to its proper item, but if I have made any mistakes, please point them out to me in the comments!)

Nathaniel F

Nathaniel is a history enthusiast and firearms hobbyist whose primary interest lies in military small arms technological developments beginning with the smokeless powder era. In addition to contributing to The Firearm Blog, he runs 196,800 Revolutions Per Minute, a blog devoted to modern small arms design and theory. He is also the author of the original web serial Heartblood, which is being updated and edited regularly. He can be reached via email at nathaniel.f@staff.thefirearmblog.com.


  • Grindstone50k

    Would love to see TFB write a bit more about the development of the 7.62 NATO.

    • It’s in the works. I’m currently on the background research stage.

      • Grindstone50k


  • Ryan Osborn

    Believe Jesus Christ is your savior for your sins. Jesus Christ is God Almighty in the Flesh. This is the Gospel, believe Jesus Christ shed his precious blood and died for you and all of your sins on the cross, he was buried and he rose again from the dead three days later from God’s Power and you will be saved, you are a Born Again Christian and you will go to Heaven forever. All have sinned and fallen short of the glory of God to where we all deserve death, destruction and judgement in the Lake of Fire from the wrath of God to where we need a savior to save us for our sins forever. By receiving Jesus Christ’s blood sacrifice as full payment for your sins you will be saved forever. It matters not how much you have sinned in the past, in the present and in the future. Once you are saved you are saved forever no matter what. Good works will not ever save you and no one and nothing else will. That is the Gospel and if you believe in the Gospel you are now a Born Again Christian and you are now saved and you will go to Heaven forever and that is the whole truth. Spread the truth. All glory goes to God forever! Praise God! Amen! (John Ch. 3:16, Romans Ch. 3:25, 4:1-6, 5:9, 1 Corinthians Ch. 15:1-4, Ephesians Ch. 2:8-9) The Authorized King James Version Bible

    • Zachary marrs

      Well, they never said anything about religion….

      Congratulations, you found a loop hole

      • This comment has popped up on a couple of threads.

        • Don Ward

          Only slightly less annoying than those who worship at the alter of the .45 ACP.

  • Forgotten Weapons has a disassembly video.

  • Grindstone50k

    $170 on Amazon??

    • Supply and demand…It was only $29.95 when it was published in 1984.

      • Grindstone50k

        Somebody digitize this ASAP pls

        • I don’t think Stackpole Books or Dr. Ezell’s heirs would appreciate that.

          • Grindstone50k

            My wallet sure would. Plus Dr. Ezell’s heirs might get some more sales.

  • Tell Steve to pay me more, so I can buy more books! 😉